Event at which a gift from France to the US was conceived:   Dinner Party
Date:   1865
Location:   Glatigny, France (near Versailles)
Host:   Edouard-Rene Lefebvre de Laboulaye (1811-83)
Honored Guest:   Frederic Auguste Bartholdi
(As accounted by Bartholdi in 1885 - ref: Trachtenberg)

Date Construction of the Statue began in France:   1875
Title of Statue: "Liberty Enlightening the World"

Sculptor:   Frederic Auguste Bartholdi
Bartholdi's Military Rank: Quartermaster to a force of five thousand soldiers
Bartholdi's Commander at Autun during Franco-Prussian War in 1870:
        Giuseppe Garibaldi (FS1986)

Structural Engineer: Gustave Eiffel
Method of Fabrication: Repousse Process

Statue completed in Paris: June 1884
Statue presented to America by the people of France: July 4, 1884
Statue dismantled and shipped to US: Early 1885

1885 Transport Ship: French frigate "Isere"
Number of individual pieces shipped to US: 350
Number of crates required: 214

Location of Statue: Liberty Island, formerly Bedloe's Island         and Fort Wood (fortress for protection
        of New York Harbor 1811)

Reaction in Paris to Liberty leaving for New York:
        On July 4, 1889 the American community in Paris offered the French people
        a gift of a bronze replica of the Statue of Liberty, 1/4 scale,
        about 35 feet high. It still stands now, on Ile des Cygnes an island in the
        Seine River, next to the Pont de Grenelle, a bridge crossing the Seine,
        1.5 km downstrean (South) of the Eiffel Tower.

Architect of the pedestal:   Richard Morris Hunt (in 1877)
Champion Fundraiser for the Pedestal: Joseph Pulitzer,
       Hungarian immigrant, Publisher of the New York World.
Treaurer of The American Committee for the Statue of Liberty:
        Henry A. Spaulding

            "New York" Quarter, 2001         1883 Dime found in Gary L. McAuliffe' Garden

Date the cornerstone was laid on Bedloe's Island:
        5 August 1884
Source of Granite for the Pedestal: Leete's Island, Connecticut

Source of Lime for Cement for the Pedestal - Widow Jane Mine
    688 Route 213, Rosendale, NY 12472, (845) 658-9900. Tours Available.
    Also on the web at: The Centuryhouse Historical Society

Largest 19th century Concrete Structure in the US -
    Statue of Liberty Pedestal
    27,000 tons, 13,300 cubic yards.
    Below grade: 53 feet deep, 91 feet square at the bottom, 65 feet square at
    the level of the original Fort Wood.
    The pedestal above grade is constructed of concrete walls from eight to
    nineteen feet in thickness that continue the battered line of the
    truncated pyramidal foundation, tapering from 65 feet square at
    grade to 43 feet at the foot of the statue with a central
    opening 27 feet square.

Date of Final Assembly of statue & pedestal: 1886

Official accepting Statue on behalf of US:
    President Grover Cleveland
Date of Acceptance by President: October 28, 1886
Part of Acceptance Statement by President Cleveland:
        "We will not forget that liberty here made her home;
        nor shall her chosen altar be neglected".

Government Official Who Vetoed Funding for
        Pedestal in 1884: President Grover Cleveland

Date designated a National Monument:
    October 15, 1924

Date arm closed to visitors:     1916
On July 30, 1916, during World War I, German saboteurs blew up a cache of dynamite at nearby Black Tom Wharf in New Jersey. The explosion did extensive structural damage to the buildings on Ellis Isalnd, and popped some bolts out of the Statue of Liberty's right arm. Officials closed the monument for about a week. When the monument re-opened, and ever since, the arm has been off limits to tourists.

For further reading:
The Black Tom Wharf Explosion
H.R. Balkhage and A.A. Hahling
The American Legion Magazine

August 1964

(Collection of Webmaster)

Wind speed at which Statue sways 3 inches (7.62 cm): 50 mph
Torch sway in 50 mph wind: 5 inches (12.7 cm).
Number of windows in the crown: 25
Number of spikes in the crown: Seven rays of the diadem
        (7 oceans of the World)
Hand with which Statue holds tablet: Left
Inscription on tablet: "July 4, 1776" (in Roman numerals)
Day of America's Independence from Britain: July 4, 1776

Height from base to torch (Bartholdi's design): 151' 1" (46.50m)
Height from base to torch (1984 Survey): 152' 2" (46.84m)
Foundation of pedestal to torch (Bartholdi's design): 305' 1" (92.99m)
Foundation of pedestal to torch (1984 Survey): 306' 8" (93.47m)
Heel to top of head: 111' 1" (33.86m)
Length of hand: 16' 5" (5.00m)

Index finger: 8' 0" (2.44m)
Circumference at second joint: 3' 6" (1.07m)
Size of fingernail: 13"x10" (33x25.4cm)
Weight of fingernail: About 3.5 pounds. (1.5 kg)
Head from chin to cranium: 17' 3" (5.26m)
Head thickness from ear to ear: 10' 0" (3.05m)
Distance across the eye: 2' 6" ( .76m)

Length of nose: 4' 6" ( l.48m)
Right arm length: 42' 0" (12.80m)
Right arm greatest thickness: 12' 0" (3.66m)
Thickness of waist: 35' 0" (10.67m)
Width of mouth: 3' 0" (.91m)

Tablet, length: 23' 7" (7.19m)
Tablet, width: 13' 7" (4.14m)
Tablet, thickness: 2' 0" (.61m)
Height of granite pedestal: 89' 0" (27.13m)
Height of foundation: 65' 0" (19.81m)

                  Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, Battery Park City                 Statue of Liberty, Verazzano Narrows Bridge
                          from World Trade Center Observatory                                   from World Trade Center Roof

Weight of copper used in Statue: 179,200 pounds (81,300 kilograms)
Weight of steel used in Statue: 250,000 pounds (113,400 kilograms)
Total weight of Statue: 450,000 pounds (225 tons)
Thickness of Copper sheeting: 3/32 inch (2.37mm)

Scaffolding Contractor for 1984-1986 Renovation:
        Universal Builders Supply
Architect for 1984-1986 Renovation:
        Swanke Hayden Connell Architects
Window Subcontractor for 1984-1986 Renovation:
        TRACO - Three Rivers Aluminum Company

Activity in Pedestal of Statue: American Museum of Immigration

Fund Raising for 1980's Renovation of Liberty and Ellis Island:
    $ 500,000 in January 1983
    $ 277 million by July 1986:
                $ 150.6 million from direct mail, foundations, collections
                $ 66.3 million sponsorships
                $ 51.9 million stamps, books, and coins
                $ 8.2 million licensed products, t-shirts, souvenirs
    $ 305.4 million by 6 March 1987
    Fundraising Costs: 12%

Liberty Construction Costs as of September 1986: $ 75 million

Approximate fabric in Liberty's dress: 4,000 sq.yds.
Bartholdi intentionally clothed Liberty as a classical Roman diety. She wears a palla, a cloak that is fastened on her left shoulder by a clasp. Underneath is a stola, which falls in many folds to her feet. (BM2000)

East Views (Collection of Webmaster)

East Views (Collection of Webmaster)

7 Spikes in the Crown represent:

- Either Seven Seas:
   Arctic, Antarctic, North & South Atlantic, North & South Pacific, Indian.
- Or Seven Continents:
   North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Antarctica, Australia

SEVEN SEAS - Figuratively, all the waters or oceans of the world. The phrase probably has its origins in Brahmanic mythology: the seven seas dividing and surrounding the seven land masses of the earth. In modern times it has been applied to the seven oceans.

Courtesy of Alexander Foertsch:
- 25 windows in the crown represent: "natural minerals" of the earth
- Toga represents: The Ancient Republic of Rome
- Torch represents: Enlightenment
- Chains underfoot represent: Liberty crushing the chains of slavery
- Location of alternate entrance: Sole of Liberty's right foot

Steps to crown: 354 steps (22 stories) This ascent is not recommended for those with health problems. An elevator which goes as high as the top of the pedestal is also available. Visitors who take the elevator to the top of the pedestal cannot then climb to the crown.

Steps from ground to top of pedestal: 192

Poem by Emma Lazarus written in 1883 to help fundraising for the Pedestal:
(Bronze plaque with the poem was mounted in the base of the Statue in 1903)

The New Colossus

Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
with conquering limbs astride from land to land;
Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
a mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame,
"Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she
with silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore,
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"

This bronze plaque was presented by philanthropist Georgiana Schuyler in 1903, twenty years after Emma Lazarus wrote her sonnet. Originally displayed on the interior wall of the Statue of Liberty's pedestal, it was placed in the Liberty exhibit in the base of the monument in July, 1886.

Emma Lazarus (1849-1887)

Address and Phone Numbers:
Liberty Island
New York, NY 10004
(212) 363-7770
(212) 363-3200 (recorded message)
(212) 363-7620 (school group reservations)
(212) 363-8347 (fax)
(212) 363-6307 (library)

Operating Hours:
Open daily: 9:30AM - 5:00PM
Open for extended hours during Summer
Closed on December 25th.

Directions and Transportation:
Liberty and Ellis Islands are accessible by
Statue of Liberty/Ellis Island Ferry, Inc. ferries only.
One round trip ferry ticket includes visits to both islands.
Ferries depart from Battery Park in New York and Liberty State Park in New Jersey.
Private vessels are not permitted to dock at the islands.

Renovation Activities 1984-1986:
A team of French and American craftsmen worked in and around the statue, repairing popped rivets and replacing the corroded iron ribs with stainless steel. They strengthened the arm, incorrectly installed in 1886. French metal crafters replaced the old flame, lit from inside, with a gold-plated copper flame lit by reflection, in keeping with the sculptor's original conception.

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